Carbonaceous Chondrite

JMDMT #2606 Microfossils of Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

Chemistry will tell you that an amino acid is any molecule that has both carboxylic acid and amino functional groups. They are the basic building units of a protein. In biochemistry, the shorter and more general term is used to refer to alpha amino acids. Those are amino acids wherein the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to a common carbon. Amino acids' residue is what's left of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost in the formation of a peptide bond. Peptides are polymer chains which form the protien in our bodies.

Twenty amino acids will be encoded by the standard genetic code. These are called proteinogenic or standard Amino [http://www.allamino.com] acids. More complicated ones are produced by our bodies, and are called nonstandard (these are not as common). Proline is the only proteinogenic amino acid, whose side group links to the a-amino group and is cyclic. This forms a secondary amino group. Before, proline was called "imino", which was misleading and was changed. Protiens contain other amino acids which are usually formed by post-translational modification (modifications AFTER translation). These modifications are essential for the function of protein. At least two amino acids, other than the standard 20, are sometimes incorporated into proteins during the translation process.

Even though only 20 amino acids are genetically encoded, over one hundred have been found in nature. Some of these have been seen in meteorites, especially in a type called carbonaceous chondrites. Microorganisms and plants can often produce somewhat uncommon amino acids, which are located in peptidic antibiotics. Lanthionine is a sulfide-bridged alanine dimer found along with unsaturated amino acids in "lantibiotics", which are antibiotic peptides of microbial origin.

As well as protein synthesis, amino acids have some other biologically important jobs. Glycine, and glutamate, are used as neurotransmitters as well as standard amino acids in proteins. Many amino acids take on the role of synthesizing other molecules, such as tryptophan, which is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin, and glycine, one of the few reactants in the synthesis of porphyrins such as heme. Heme is in "hemoglobin", which is also important in the makeup of protein. Numerous, non-standard amino acids, are biologically important: "GABA",another neurotransmitter, carnitine, which is used in lipid transport within the cell, citrulline, ornithine, hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, homocysteine, and sarcosine.

Feel free to reprint this article as long as you keep the article, this caption and author biography in tact with all hyperlinks.

Tyler Brooker is the owner and operator of All Amino [http://www.allamino.com] - [http://www.allamino.com], which is the best site on the internet for all Amino related information.

The ____ meteorites are believed to have solidified in the cooling exterior of a large molten asteroid (which?

subsequently was broken apart.)
1. iron

2. chondrite

3. chondrule

4. achondrite stone

5. carbonaceous chondrite

Do a search on Wikipedia for each of the answers and your answer will be shown.^




525 grams NWA 8038 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CO3 fragment
525 grams NWA 8038 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CO3 fragment

$3.30
14d 6h 52m remaining

uNWA Meteorite Carbonaceous Chondrite End Cut FASCINATING INCLUSION 23g
uNWA Meteorite Carbonaceous Chondrite End Cut FASCINATING INCLUSION 23g

$145.00
22d 22h 40m remaining

201 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 as found fragment
201 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 as found fragment

$9.00
1d 21h 35m remaining

Meteorite NWA 7479 Carbonaceous Chondrite CC 025AZ 045g 075g Nice
Meteorite NWA 7479 Carbonaceous Chondrite CC 025AZ 045g 075g Nice

$5.99
10d 7h remaining

Very large Carbonaceous CO chondrite meteorite polished slice 546g
Very large Carbonaceous CO chondrite meteorite polished slice 546g

$160.00
13d 3m remaining

meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 220 g fall 1969
meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 220 g fall 1969

$49.00
27d 22h 50m remaining

meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 290 g fall 1969
meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 290 g fall 1969

$69.00
27d 22h 50m remaining

meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 570 g fall 1969
meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 570 g fall 1969

$139.00
27d 22h 50m remaining

Allende Mexico Type 3 Carbonaceous Chondrite CV3 Meteorite
Allende Mexico Type 3 Carbonaceous Chondrite CV3 Meteorite

$49.99
24d 17h 50m remaining

389 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 nice as found
389 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 nice as found

$22.00
12d 23h 21m remaining

meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 210 g fall 1969
meteorite ALLENDE carbonaceous chondrite CV3 crusted fragment 210 g fall 1969

$49.00
27d 22h 50m remaining

649 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 as found fragment
649 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 as found fragment

$33.00
12d 23h 20m remaining



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