Carbonaceous Chondrite

JMDMT #2606 Microfossils of Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

Chemistry will tell you that an amino acid is any molecule that has both carboxylic acid and amino functional groups. They are the basic building units of a protein. In biochemistry, the shorter and more general term is used to refer to alpha amino acids. Those are amino acids wherein the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to a common carbon. Amino acids' residue is what's left of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost in the formation of a peptide bond. Peptides are polymer chains which form the protien in our bodies.

Twenty amino acids will be encoded by the standard genetic code. These are called proteinogenic or standard Amino [http://www.allamino.com] acids. More complicated ones are produced by our bodies, and are called nonstandard (these are not as common). Proline is the only proteinogenic amino acid, whose side group links to the a-amino group and is cyclic. This forms a secondary amino group. Before, proline was called "imino", which was misleading and was changed. Protiens contain other amino acids which are usually formed by post-translational modification (modifications AFTER translation). These modifications are essential for the function of protein. At least two amino acids, other than the standard 20, are sometimes incorporated into proteins during the translation process.

Even though only 20 amino acids are genetically encoded, over one hundred have been found in nature. Some of these have been seen in meteorites, especially in a type called carbonaceous chondrites. Microorganisms and plants can often produce somewhat uncommon amino acids, which are located in peptidic antibiotics. Lanthionine is a sulfide-bridged alanine dimer found along with unsaturated amino acids in "lantibiotics", which are antibiotic peptides of microbial origin.

As well as protein synthesis, amino acids have some other biologically important jobs. Glycine, and glutamate, are used as neurotransmitters as well as standard amino acids in proteins. Many amino acids take on the role of synthesizing other molecules, such as tryptophan, which is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin, and glycine, one of the few reactants in the synthesis of porphyrins such as heme. Heme is in "hemoglobin", which is also important in the makeup of protein. Numerous, non-standard amino acids, are biologically important: "GABA",another neurotransmitter, carnitine, which is used in lipid transport within the cell, citrulline, ornithine, hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, homocysteine, and sarcosine.

Feel free to reprint this article as long as you keep the article, this caption and author biography in tact with all hyperlinks.

Tyler Brooker is the owner and operator of All Amino [http://www.allamino.com] - [http://www.allamino.com], which is the best site on the internet for all Amino related information.

The ____ meteorites are believed to have solidified in the cooling exterior of a large molten asteroid (which?

subsequently was broken apart.)
1. iron

2. chondrite

3. chondrule

4. achondrite stone

5. carbonaceous chondrite

Do a search on Wikipedia for each of the answers and your answer will be shown.^




506 grams NWA 8160 Meteorite  Carbonaceous chondrite CV3  NorthWest Africa
506 grams NWA 8160 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 NorthWest Africa

$3.79 (3 Bids)
1d 22h 42m remaining

MURCHISON Carbonaceous Chondrite meteorite fall 012g of fragments oldest ever
MURCHISON Carbonaceous Chondrite meteorite fall 012g of fragments oldest ever

$35.00 (1 Bid)
4d 15h 3m remaining

593 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 as found in Africa
593 grams NWA 4502 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 as found in Africa

$39.00
19h 5m remaining

222 grams NWA 7479 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 landed in Africa
222 grams NWA 7479 Meteorite Carbonaceous chondrite CV3 landed in Africa

$4.99 (1 Bid)
1d 22h 42m remaining

Meteorite NWA 13246 Carbonaceous Chondrite  CK3
Meteorite NWA 13246 Carbonaceous Chondrite CK3

$0.01
12h 38m remaining

Meteorite NWA 13150 Carbonaceous Chondrite CM2 TKW 59g
Meteorite NWA 13150 Carbonaceous Chondrite CM2 TKW 59g

$0.01
4d 12h 50m remaining

Meteorite NWA 11535 Equilibrated Carbonaceous Chondrite  CK6
Meteorite NWA 11535 Equilibrated Carbonaceous Chondrite CK6

$0.01
4d 12h 38m remaining

Meteorite NWA 11543 Carbonaceous Chondrite type CV3 Nice contrasted matrix
Meteorite NWA 11543 Carbonaceous Chondrite type CV3 Nice contrasted matrix

$0.01
4d 12h 40m remaining

Meteorite NWA 10289 Nice CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Red Black and White
Meteorite NWA 10289 Nice CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Red Black and White

$7.37 (3 Bids)
12h 31m remaining

Meteorite NWA 11537 Carbonaceous CV3 chondrite
Meteorite NWA 11537 Carbonaceous CV3 chondrite

$0.01
4d 12h 39m remaining

Meteorite NWA 801 Metal rich carbonaceous chondrite CR2
Meteorite NWA 801 Metal rich carbonaceous chondrite CR2

$31.00 (7 Bids)
3d 12h 47m remaining

361g End Cut NWA 5546 CV3 CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE METEORITE
361g End Cut NWA 5546 CV3 CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE METEORITE

$100.00
4d 15h 54m remaining



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